B. Language skills development guidelines

Description of the ELL Support Levels 1 to 5
Remember: teach meaningful and relevant language and content pertinent to the task and learner.
  • Teach in context as opposed to sequentially or in isolation.
  • Try to match ELL teaching content with classroom content where possible.
  • This is a guideline that is descriptive not prescriptive.
  • Use your professional judgment and autonomy.
  • Avoid teaching meanings of grammatical items but instead provide opportunities to use them.
  • Highlight and explain socio-cultural features as they occur.

The following list identifies a general list of elements which make up an effective language development program for elementary schools:

Listening/Speaking:
  • Opportunities to listen and speak in everyday situations are provided, i.e., directions, messages, reports.
  • Opportunities to hear and use subject specific language are provided. (Students work in groups of various sizes and individually).
  • Peer-coaching is in place.
  • Songs, poetry, chants, rhymes are used.
  • Program plans include cooperative learning strategies.
  • Oral instruction is given at an appropriate level of proficiency for the student.
  • Students are asked to retell instructions.
  • Students have effective English models.
  • Students are asked to reflect on language learning and make personal goals.
  • Comprehension checks are interspersed throughout the lessons.

Reading:
  • A variety of fiction and non-fiction resources which address various reading levels are available (newspapers, books, magazines, DVDS, nursery rhymes, stories, plays, directions, signs, pictures, student-written material, internet).
  • Literature is inclusive and reflects the Canadian diversity.
  • Program reflects a variety of purposes and includes a balance of strategies, i.e., personal reading for enjoyment; shared reading for instruction; directed reading for academic purposes; making connections, predictions, inferences, questions, visualizing, transforming, as well as hearing others read (peers, teachers, guests, audio books).
  • The program provides direct follow-up purposeful activities to reading (drama, discussions, writing, two-column notes, letter to the author, diary of a character, listen/sketch/draft, artwork inspired by the reading; and retelling).
  • Students should be exposed to a variety of genres and taught specific reading comprehension strategies tied to the various genres.

Writing:
  • Program includes a balance of writing experiences and opportunities, i.e., writing for academic purposes (summarizing, note-taking, essays, etc.): responding to literature; personal writing for self-expression and communication; and process writing throughout the curriculum.
  • Spelling program reflects the cognitive development and language acquisition stage of the students, offering appropriate strategies and instruction according to the students' needs.
  • Early writing will involve the use of inventive spelling.
  • Students should be exposed to the various writing genres and taught specific strategies on how to write them.
  • Strategies and opportunities to practice the conventions of spelling are provided.
  • Students are encouraged to share their writing with a variety of audiences.
  • Students are encouraged to reflect on their language learning, set goals and write about their learning strategies and intercultural experiences.

ELL SUPPORT LEVEL 1
Content themes for ELL Support Levels 1 and 2:
  • greetings
  • (recycling)
  • Date: days of the week, months of the year
  • classroom objects and prepositions
  • seasons and weather
  • personal information, family and house vocabulary (i.e. furniture)
  • time
  • clothing
  • parts of the body
  • food
  • emotions
  • Canada (start locally!)
  • occupations
  • local community: field trips: cultural sites, landmarks, local community, events
  • leisure activities and sports
  • holidays and special days
  • animals and pets
  • Multiculturalism and Global Education (sharing one's own culture)
  • vocabulary building games
  • music and drama: games, songs and lyrics
  • body language
  • school and classroom expectations re: behaviour, work habits, social responsibility, manners
  • school procedures and participation in school, i.e., earthquake and fire drills, computer lab and library use, how to sign up for clubs, etc.

Examples of Teaching Adaptations/Scaffolds
  • Provide a low-anxiety environment conducive to learning
  • Use and develop background knowledge
  • Provide clear expectations orally and visually
  • Pre-teach new vocabulary, concepts, symbols, matching words with visuals
  • Model think-alouds
  • Provide repetition and clear, step-by-step instructions
  • Check for understanding throughout
  • Provide accessible word wall
  • Simplify language and slow down rate of speech
  • Encourage choral repetition to start to develop fluency
  • Allow extra time for response and completion
  • Allow for pictorial representations and use of labels with pictures
  • Allow for the use of first language
  • Pair up with a peer buddy (especially if they speak the same language)
  • Provide package for the regular classroom teacher to assist the student in independent work

TIPS FOR LEVEL ONE STUDENTS
  • use a picture dictionary and electronic dictionary
  • seek social conversation and play with fluent English speakers
  • request repetition and clarification when not understanding
  • maintain a personal visual dictionary
  • make vocabulary and cultural connections between languages
  • access the internet for language games, recreational reading, translation and activities\understand that making mistakes is a natural part of language learning.

Comprehension Prompts
  • Point to the...
  • Show me...
  • Circle the...
  • Find the...
  • Put the ... next to the ....
  • Underline ...
  • Choose the
  • Listen...
  • Match the...
  • Do you have a ....? Do you want...? Do you like....?
  • Is this a ....?
  • Who wants the ....?
  • Where is ....?
  • What is ....?

ELL Level 1 Literature Content
Stories: Introduction to the Basic Elements of character, plot and setting (prose)
  • logical sequence
  • basic understanding and comprehension
Storybook
  • high interest, i.e, picture books
Tales: Reading for Comprehension and Pleasure
  • folk tales
  • fairy tales
  • nursery rhymes
Autobiography: Writing simple facts about self
  • writing projects
Drama:
  • simple dialogue
  • chants
  • choral recitation
  • jazz chants
  • puppetry
  • flannel board stories
  • reader's theater
Newspapers:
  • High interest, low vocabulary newspapers such as the West Coast Reader

Language Experience Stories

Level 1 Language Skills Development
Speaking : Level One students can...
  • ask questions and answer questions in single words, phrases or very simple sentence
  • communicate cooperatively in groups
  • take part in simple dramatics and oral presentations
  • speak in a voice that is loud enough to be heard (audible voice)
  • participate in classroom games and skits
  • say the alphabet
  • count to 100 (cardinal numbers)
  • use and understand survival telephone skills
  • give information about self and ask for personal information about others
  • talk about daily routine
  • tell the time (orally)
  • begin to produce the basic sounds of English (long consonant blends, short vowels and digraphs, stress and intonations at word and sentence level)
  • provide and ask information about weather, seasons, common food and clothing, family, names, address and nationality, common household and school items, parts of the body, colours and animals
  • use basic courtesy expressions
  • talk about personal state of being (hungry, tired)
  • describe simple physical features (height, size, weight, etc.)
  • describe an object using basic adjectives
  • state personal preferences
  • participate in structured dialogues using patterned learned language
  • develop pragmatics of speech (survival, need-based)

Listening: Level One students can...
  • understand questions related to familiar course material and everyday situations
  • understand short phrases or key words
  • understand general directions
  • participate in question/answer discussions (2 people)
  • understand and follow slow and articulate spoken instructions
  • recognize the meaning of spoken sentences, questions and conversations
  • take basic dictation of words and sentences
  • pick out main ideas of familiar speech
  • participate in listening centres
  • recognize and write down key words and ideas heard in short passages to produce or retell a story

Writing: Level One students can...
  • write the alphabet (printed and cursive in Intermediate Grades)
  • follow basic spelling conventions
  • write simple sentences using the writing process
  • retell a reading passage (late Level 1)
  • brainstorm as a pre-writing activity
  • participate in journal writing (emergent writing with teacher guidance)
  • perform basic editing and revisions (teacher)
  • notice sequencing, logical progressions
  • develop coherence (one topic focus)
  • write numbers
  • begin to use visual organizers and generate ideas
  • follow pattern writing to create a poem or simple story
  • follow a story frame to write a story

Reading: Level One students can...
  • recognize and use alphabet (printed and written as needed)
  • use phonics and word attack skills
  • comprehend simple sentence meanings
  • understand main ideas of a simple short story
  • understand basic word meaning in context
  • recognize word families
  • develop dictionary skills
  • read for pleasure and build vocabulary
  • make predictions
  • complete easy cloze exercises
  • know how to use the library
  • read and understand common information signs around the community
  • build basic sight vocabulary

Grammar
A movement from formal, cued practice to spontaneous, creative practice is assumed for all grammar items.
  • ask questions and answer questions in a simple sentence
  • articles a, an, the (introduction)
  • yes/no questions
  • basic question forms - Who? What? When? Where? Why?How? (use and understand)
  • question word/sentence patterns
  • negative sentence patterns
  • subject/verb agreement (understand importance and begin to use)
  • adjectives (descriptive, know position of adjectives in a sentence)
  • possessive adjectives (pronouns: my, her, his)
  • basic sentence word order (S V O)
  • begin to recognize irregular plurals of common words
  • begin to recognize simple collective nouns, countable and non-countable nouns
  • commands (let's, etc.), imperatives
  • modals (can, can't, must)
  • verb tenses: present and habitual action, regular, irregular past, present, progressive, present progressive for future action (am going...)
  • pronouns (as non-referents) personal, passive, interrogative
  • polite requests (literal)
  • prepositions (place, time)
  • there is/ there are
  • compounds
  • contractions
  • ordinal numbers
  • simple punctuation
  • capitalization
  • introduction to the use of infinitives

Note: This list is provided as a the beginning of a continuum to guide for teachers when teaching ESL, not as a list of expectations before a student moves on to the next level. Students will need significant support over a long period of time in order to master the list above. Teachers need to also take into consideration the age and cognitive development of the learners when focusing on a grammar point. The Richmond School District ESL matrices and the BC Ministry of Education's ESL Standards should be referred to when planning and determining language proficiency levels.

ELL Support Level 2
Remember: teach meaningful and relevant language pertinent to the task and learner.
  • Teach in context as opposed to sequentially or in isolation;
  • Try to match ESL teaching content with classroom content;
  • This is a guideline that is descriptive not prescriptive;
  • Use your professional judgment and autonomy;
  • Avoid teaching meanings of grammatical items but instead provide opportunities to use them in context;
  • Highlight and explain socio-cultural features as they occur.
Literature Content
Literature
  • short stories: basic elements - characters, events, plot, problem, solution, predicting outcomes
  • introduction to poetry: simple poetic forms : Haiku, Cinquain, and free form
  • novels: beginning pleasure reading, interactions to different novels: adventure,mystery
  • fairytales, folk tales, fable: morals and themes
  • autobiography: significant events, memory of a topic - more extended writing
  • biography: reading simple biographies of heroes and celebrities- basic character analysis
  • drama: reader's theatre, performing a role play, jazz chants
  • reading simple newspapers: introducing newspaper format and organization, extracting "who, what, when, where, why and how"
  • support, reinforce the literature programme in regular class

Language Skills Development
Speaking: Level 2 Students can...
  • read orally (with standard pronunciation and expression more frequently)
  • ask and answer questions related to subject matter or of a personal nature
  • take part in discussion using single words, phrases, and simple sentences
  • take part in creative dramatics: role play, dialogues (structures), skills
  • give oral summaries of reading passages
  • give short talk to the class on a subject of interest, and answer questions about it
  • participate in informal interviews
  • develop, expand vocabulary
  • participate in cooperative learning activities
  • listen and respond orally to oral instructions
  • listen and respond orally to class discussions
  • develop increasing familiarity and accuracy with pronunciations including stress, rhythm, intonation, and patterns
  • participate in reader's theatre
  • begin to recognize idiomatic expressions
  • say ordinal numbers
  • use consistently consonant clusters/blends, diphthongs (ou, ow), verb endings (ed endings), plural noun endings
  • understand and use long vowel sounds (magic "e", diphthongs)
  • begin to become aware of syllabification

Listening: Level 2 Students can...
  • understand simple information on TV, video, internet
  • understand simple group discussions and participate in activities and cooperative games
  • understand key points in ESL lessons
  • understand speaker's intent (general)
  • participate in an informal interview
  • follow simple teacher instructions more independently

Reading: Level 2 Students can...
  • use phonemic awareness o decode words and word families
  • use picture clues to predict,sequence/retell events
  • read frequently in English for information and pleasure
  • comprehend simple sentence meaning
  • understand the main idea of a passage
  • make simple connections, predictions, conclusions with support
  • understand the point of view of a passage
  • understand word meaning in context, recognize word families and prefixes and develop dictionary skills
  • read for different purposes (research, information, entertainment)
  • extract information from non-prose materials (maps, graphs, ads)
  • use library facilities
  • read different genres in literature (short stories, poetry, abridged novels at an appropriate level)
  • recognize the elements of short story (beginning, middle, end; plot, character, setting) with support
  • read simple, non-fiction articles and books (e.g. science, history, sports, music)
  • continue to develop reading skills (decoding, context clues, sight words)
Writing: Level 2 Students can...
  • write sentences and simple paragraphs using the writing process
  • demonstrate control of word order and grammatical forms in simple and compound sentences
  • punctuate and capitalize with some accuracy
  • provide written answers to questions in complete sentences
  • write simple summaries of reading passages
  • express ideas in a variety of ways (webbing, visuals, photo-essay, comics, timeline, brochure)
Grammar
Review ALL level 1, plus more emphasis on:
  • adverbs, (frequency: often, rarely)
  • simple parts of speech such as noun, verb, adjective (be able to identify and give examples)
  • articles: definite, indefinite (use correctly more often)
  • subordination and coordination: if (conditional tense), while, for, since, because
  • adjectives: this, that, these, those
  • tense: review present, past, future and progressive
  • irregular verbs
  • infinitives: begin to use correctly
  • conjunctions: too, and either-or, so, but
  • introduction to tag questions
  • further development of modals (have to, could, should, am able to , may) and auxiliaries

Examples of Teaching Adaptations/Scaffolds
  • Provide a low anxiety learning environment
  • Allow the use of first language
  • Pair up with a peer buddy (especially if they speak the same language)
  • Use gestures, picture books, visuals and graphic organizers
  • Simplify language and rate of speech
  • Accept one or two word responses
  • Allow students time to process
  • Allow for picture representations with labels
  • Use music, poems, chants, songs with repetitive patterns
  • Create a safe environment to encourage active participation
  • Model correct responses with complete sentences
  • Check for comprehension throughout the lesson.

TIPS FOR LEVEL 2 STUDENTS
  • use a picture dictionary and electronic dictionary
  • continue conversation and play with fluent speakers
  • make vocabulary and cultural connections between languages
  • request repetition and clarification when not understanding
  • paraphrase to verify understanding
  • read a variety of genres
  • maintain a personal visual dictionary
  • access the internet for language games, recreational reading, translation and activities
  • understand that making mistakes is a natural part of language learning.

Comprehension Prompts (all of the prompts from Level One and...)
  • Who, What, Where, When, How, How many, How much...?
  • Yes/no, either/or responses
  • Tell or say
  • Name, list, label

ELL Support Level 3
Remember: teach meaningful and relevant language pertinent to the task and learner.
  • Teach in context as opposed to sequentially or in isolation;
  • Try to match ELL teaching content with classroom content
  • This is a guideline that is descriptive not prescriptive.
  • Use your professional judgment and autonomy.
  • Avoid teaching meanings of grammatical items but instead provide opportunities to use these items.
  • Highlight and explain socio-cultural features as they occur.
Literature Content
Literature
  • refer to the English Language Arts curriculum for learning outcomes for Level 3 & 4 in consultation with classroom teachers
  • while the level of text or level of support may be different, the learning outcomes will be the same.
Language Skills Development
Speaking (Oral/Listening): Level Three students can:
  • use everyday language confidently and with a fair degree of fluency (with fewer pauses)
  • develop clarity in speech so that meaning is understood (pronunciation)
  • understand and use specialized vocabulary in a variety of situations, both social and academic (e.g. TV, film, plays, classroom presentations, demonstrations, simulations, news reports and debates)
  • use some idiomatic forms and colloquial expressions
  • extract more information, making connections, some inferences and predictions
  • express opinions and responses in an appropriate manner
  • expand on the ability to use socially appropriate language and conversational gambits: leave-taking, turn-taking, interrupting, expressing opinions and disagreement
  • participate in more spontaneous class discussions
  • read aloud with expression (voice and diction)
  • participate in unstructured dialogues
  • initiate and maintain conversations
  • use appropriate body language and level of politeness
  • tell a story: logical sequence
  • use paraphrasing (indirect speech)
  • make fewer grammatical mistakes (meaning is usually understandable)
  • participate in class presentations and able to prepare and rehearse
  • be comfortable with reader's theatre
Listening: Level Three students can:
  • understand specialized vocabulary in both social and academic situations
  • understand idiomatic forms and colloquial expressions
  • understand more complicated instructions, e.g., with more than one step
  • understand most everyday conversations
  • understand many ideas in a variety of content areas
  • understand the main ideas in a news broadcast
  • take dictations of passages
Writing: Intermediate Level Three students can:
  • write cohesive, well-organized paragraphs
  • use paragraph organization via topic sentence, body and concluding sentence
  • employ a variety of writing styles (e.g., expository, descriptive, narrative, persuasive
  • write conclusions
  • paraphrase, take notes, collect facts (basic research)
  • continue to use graphic organizers, webs, visuals, pictures to support writing
Primary and Intermediate Level Three students can:
  • write formal and informal letters using the appropriate format and register
  • use simple, compound and complex sentences effectively
  • use basic summary techniques
  • write for specific purpose: dialogue, journals
  • participate in creative writing
  • write book reviews and reports
  • expand vocabulary with emphasis on utilizing and extending vocabulary
  • use methods of development: descriptions, explanation, compare/contrast, cause and effect, evaluations (choice), chronological order

Reading: Level Three students can:
  • interpret and appreciate different literary genres (short stories, novel prose, poetry and plays, science articles, newspaper articles, biographies, advertisements)
  • locate information for a specific purpose using skimming and scanning techniques
  • make connections (text/text, text/self, text/world)
  • make predictions, conclusions, visualize and ask questions
  • analyze and construct simple literary devices (similes, metaphors, alliterations - Intermediate)
  • analyze the elements of a short story or novel (setting, character, plot, climax, resolution)
  • comprehend thematic structures of fiction and non-fiction
  • read for academic purposes (research, report, statistics, maps and graphs)
  • understand content specific vocabulary (multiple-meaning words, homonyms, synonyms and antonyms)
  • use a thesaurus and dictionary
Grammar: Review ALL level 1 and Level 2, plus more emphasis on:
  • conjunctions - coordinating, correlating (rather, nor, both, and) subordinating
  • comparatives and superlatives - review one syllable words (er, est), learn two syllable words (more, most, less, least), order of modifiers (much, many, few, fewer)
  • inflected possessives (especially with plural nouns, proper nouns and group nouns)
  • dangling and misplaced modifiers (Intermediate)
  • irregular plurals
  • additional adverbs
  • modals (especially, have, get) review must, may, should, could
  • sentence patterns (simple, progressive, irregular, past, conditional (could, should, would, might) tenses
  • tense: Present perfect, present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous, past perfect
  • subordinate and coordinate: if (conditional tense) while, for, since, because
  • direct and indirect speech
  • pronouns (demonstrative and indefinite), reflexive (review)
  • prepositions and prepositional phrases (review) - add cause/effect, e.g., due to, because of
  • affixes (prefixes and suffixes)
  • punctuation: especially colons, semicolons and dashes
  • idioms, idiomatic prepositions (introduce)
  • grammatical terms (for discussing the language)
  • synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, homophones
  • negative questions (e.g., don't you like it? no? yes?)
  • show relationships between ideas (unless, due to, because of)
Examples of Adaptations/Scaffolds
  • Build on prior knowledge
  • Preteach vocabulary for academic areas
  • Use webs and other graphic organizers
  • Continue to use visuals and other representations and allow students to express their understanding through them
  • Slow down speech when giving complex directions or information to the student and provide written support
  • Provide wait time for student to process oral directions or to respond orally
  • Connect new learning to background knowledge and cultural knowledge, e.g. making comparisons with their home country and Canada
  • Continue to check for comprehension throughout the lesson.

TIPS FOR LEVEL 3 STUDENTS
  • read in a variety of genres
  • note challenging vocabulary and translate
  • make connections between word families, cognates and cultural elements
  • continue to use the dictionary as well as the internet for translation
  • keep a journal noting language learning strategies and reflections on cultural experiences
  • practice social conversation with a variety of English native speakers, young and old
  • seek repetition, clarification and paraphrase when not understanding
  • understand that making mistakes is a natural part of language learning.
Comprehension Prompts (all of the prompts from Level 1-2 and...)
  • Why, How, What happened ..., Tell me..., What would you do if...., If clauses
  • Describe, Compare
  • Recall
  • Retell, restate
  • Define
  • Contrast
  • Summarize
  • Explain
  • Allow for phrase and sentence answers.

ELL Support Level 4
Remember: teach meaningful and relevant language pertinent to the task and learner.
  • Teach in context as opposed to sequentially or in isolation;
  • Try to match ESL teaching content with classroom content.
  • This is a guideline that is descriptive not prescriptive.
  • Use your professional judgment and autonomy.
  • Avoid teaching meanings of grammatical items but instead provide opportunities to use these items.
  • Highlight and explain socio-cultural features as they occur.
Literature Content
Literature:
  • refer to the English Language Arts IRP for learning outcomes for Level 3 and 4 in consultation with classroom teachers
  • while the level of text or level of support may be different, the learning outcomes will be the same.
Language Skill Development
Speaking (Oral/Listening) : Level Four students can:
  • use everyday language confidently and fluently
  • participate in academic discussions with reasonable fluency
  • participate orally in a variety of situations (participating in interviews, group discussions, debates)
  • self-correct oral production generally
  • understand and respond to speaker's intent
  • make critical analysis regarding bias, and respond with own opinions
  • use specialized academic vocabulary with confidence (extensive synonym base)
  • understand and use idioms and humour appropriately with increasing frequency
  • speak with the pronunciation and intonation that is beginning to approximate a native speaker
  • use a wide variety of verb tenses with no errors
Listening: Level Four students can:
  • understand a variety of speech delivered at normal speed by native English speakers
  • understand a speaker's intent
  • listen to live, unedited materials in a variety of situations and extract meaning with a fair degree of accuracy
  • understand nearly all social and academic language at normal speed
  • able to detect inflections and intonations in speech (accent)
Writing: Level Four students can:
  • write a coherent, well-organized story
  • use compound/complex sentences effectively
  • engage in the writing process: brainstorming, writing, conferencing, editing and final draft
  • employ a variety of writing styles (expository, descriptive, narrative and persuasive)
  • compose poems in a variety of forms (limerick, haiku, sonnet)
  • write a simple research paper utilizing title page, table of contents, footnotes, bibliography, references (quotations documenting sources)
  • write multi-paragraphed report thesis statements with concrete support statements
  • recognize correction symbols
  • compose literary character analyses
Reading: Level Four students can:
  • scan, skim and infer for specific purposes
  • make connections (text/text, text/self, text/world)
  • make predictions, inferences, conclusions, and ask questions
  • interpret and appreciate more advanced forms of literature
  • analyze more sophisticated elements of literature (protagonist, antagonist, point of view, conflict)
  • use a library with confidence and efficiency
Grammar: Review ALL level 1,2 and 3, plus more emphasis on:
  • verb tenses: review and use all tenses extensively
  • clauses: embedded
  • colloquialism and idiomatic phrases (advanced, phrasal verbs e.g. to put off, to get on, to put up with, kick out of)
  • adverbial phrases and clauses (unless, only if, providing/provided, in case that, in the event, even though)
  • know order of adjectives when there are more than one
  • complex noun plurals (e.g. sheep/sheep; mouse/mice, etc.)
  • contrastive ideas (though, although, however, nevertheless, despite)

Examples of Adaptations/Scaffolds
  • Continue to provide opportunities for oral language and processing information orally before reading and writing
  • Use Venn Diagrams for compare and contrast
  • Continue to use graphic organizers to build understanding
  • Make connections to background knowledge
  • Tie new content learning to the student’s cultural background to increase understanding
  • Use simpler versions of text that cover the same content
  • Teach text structure to help students in reading and writing and support with graphic organizers
  • Continue to develop academic vocabulary, both specific to individual content areas and to overall academic learning (e.g. discuss) and writing (transition words, etc.)
  • Continue to check for comprehension but less frequently than before.

TIPS FOR LEVEL 4 STUDENTS
  • read, read, read in a variety of genres
  • continue to note challenging vocabulary and translate
  • continue to make connections to word families and cognates
  • keep a journal noting language learning strategies and reflections on intercultural experiences
  • seek out social conversation with a variety of English native speakers, young and old
  • seek clarification, repetition and paraphrase when not understanding

Comprehension Prompts: (all of Levels 1-3 and...)
  • What would happen if...?
  • Why do you think...?
  • If you had / were ....
  • Decide if....
  • Analyze, Compare, Determine, Clarify...
  • Defend, Debate
  • Evaluate
  • Reflect, Justify, Support
  • Complete
  • Describe
  • Create
  • Explain

ESL Support Level 5
Support for Level 5 may look different with each student because of the necessity to focus on specific needs. The student may appear quite fluent but at the same time, have specific grammar, vocabulary, or stylistic areas needing attention. At Level 5, students have a fairly sophisticated level of language and should recognize and refine their understandings about the differences in idioms, social register, slang, and standard English. ESL teachers should collaborate with the regular classroom teacher to determine which ways might work best to support these students. The approaches may vary from pull-out, in-class support, or team-teaching, depending on scheduling, staff availability, number of students, and diverse needs.

Examples of Adaptations/Scaffolds
  • Continue to build on background knowledge
  • Connect new learning to background information
  • Continue to model think-alouds
  • Use graphic organizers and visuals
  • Identify and teach specific academic vocabulary, idiomatic expressions, and cultural humour
  • Teach a variety of writing and reading genres for different purposes
  • Continue to develop metacognitive awareness skills

TIPS FOR LEVEL 5 STUDENTS
  • read, read, read in a variety of genres and discuss your reading and ideas with others
  • use a variety of dictionaries and thesaurus
  • note challenging vocabulary and translate
  • continue to make connections with word families, cognates and cultures
  • practice social conversation with a variety of English native speakers, young and old
  • continue to repeat, seek clarification and paraphrase when not understanding

Comprehension Prompts (all of Levels 1-4 and...)
  • Analyze...
  • Defend...
  • Debate...
  • Evaluate ...
  • Synthesize ...