Assessment and Reporting
Initial Assessment
Initial assessment begins when new students register for school at the School Board Office at Central Registration. The parents are asked if a language in addition to or other than English is used at home. If so, the family is given an appointment for an assessment at the ELL Reception Centre. Here, usually within a week of arrival but generally sooner, the student is given several short language assessments to determine the ELL support level. In addition, the families are provided with information about the school system and are given an opportunity to discuss any concerns or questions pertaining to their children’s education usually through the support of a Settlement Worker. Immigration and residential documents are checked and recommended grade placements are confirmed. Note that even a proficient Level 5 student will most typically lack understanding of Canadian history, geography, government, traditions, and customs and the specialized academic language that accompanies this information. The Level 5 designation not only provides targeted support for this specialized academic language but also provide SWIS support to the newly arrived family, an essential service for newcomers.

The process is similar for new Kindergarten registrations, beginning with the question asked upon school registration: what languages are used in your home? More than half of all Kindergarten students in Richmond come from homes where a language other than or in addition to English is used at home. Beginning in January of each year and continuing through to August, parents of future Kindergarten students are welcomed into the school district and their children are given an ELL oral assessment. As well, parents receive information about schooling within SD#38, specifically about ELL support and various programs offered. Where appropriate, SWIS support is provided.

When new students arrive at school after their ELL assessment, they receive ELL support based on the level determined at the Reception Centre. In elementary schools, all ELLs are immediately and fully integrated into a “regular” classroom and receive ELL support through in-class or pullout from the ELL specialist teacher or from the Resource teacher in a “blended” support model. The amount of time and attention such students receive in elementary schools depends upon a number of site-specific factors, but generally the lower the ELL support level number, the higher amount of direct ELL support. The Ministry of Education does not specify a minimum number of minutes of ELL necessary for support, allowing for the intensity of support to vary during the year. In Secondary schools, ELL students receive specific ELL support through separate ELL blocks of instruction, and thus, the support blocks feel and look like “regular” course blocks. Again, the lower the ELL support level, the more blocks of ELL support provided.

Each spring, all ELLs participate in a district-wide assessment known as the Spring Census. The primary purpose of this assessment is to determine the ELL support needed for the upcoming school year. This is especially important for students moving from elementary to secondary schools or changing schools. This census also assists the District in anticipating and confirming September ELL staffing needs for each school site.

All ELL assessment results are entered into the District ELL database. This database is used to ensure accurate Ministry funding of ELL support and to determine ELL staffing allocations consistently throughout the district. In addition, the database assists in tracking ELL students as they move from school to school within the District and as they transition from elementary to secondary.

Reflections on Assessment and Evaluation in ELL
Assessment and evaluation practices that are inclusive and promote success for all will improve English language acquisition. Using simplistic language, visuals and graphics in teaching, assessment and reporting will assist the learner as well as the parent to understand criteria, progress and areas of need. In writing such criteria, avoid negative language describing errors or hesitancy as well as linguistic jargon such as idioms, colloquialisms, and grammar points. Instead focus on using positive performance-based "can-do" statements about what students can do as opposed to can't. Helping the student to see their language acquisition as positive steps towards fluency will create a mindset for success as one's attitude towards language learning has a significant influence on the actual language acquisition.

In planning lessons, ELL teachers should also consider:
1) providing lots of opportunities to build prior knowledge and have focused meaningful oral language practice before moving to written products;
2) modeling and practicing "think-alouds" to help students develop metacognitive skills;
3) sharing and discussing assessment criteria and expectations orally as well as in written format;
4) modeling expectations and providing language samples and products whenever possible;
5) allowing extra time for language processing and output;
6) providing opportunities for students to reflect on learning goals by using a learning log or journal and for older learners, including reflection on progress in relationship to the matrices;
7) using portfolios in order that students can participate in goal setting, reflection and assessment of their own work;
8) helping students and parents understand the ELL matrices by sharing student work samples from the various levels representative of their grade;
9) reminding parents that it takes on average five to seven years to learn a second language, involving a minimum acquisition of over 50,000 words in English by the end of Grade 12 for ELL learners, and up to 150,000 words for Canadian-born English native speakers (see H. Roessingh);
10) not penalizing Level 1/2 ELLs for using their first language as first language use can benefit learning in the content areas.

Writing Assessment Suggestions:
a) Beginning ELLs may respond with pictures and labels in their journals. Have students include realia (ticket stubs, menus, receipts, photos, drawings, etc) and share in writing and orally their reflections.
b) Students create a comic strip and fill in the speech bubbles to make a story. This can be done via the Internet or in print.c) Following phrase or sentence framed models, students create a poem, chant, or song.d) Using a sequence of pictures, have students retell the story sequence with descriptions. (e.g clotheline stories)
e) With teacher provided prompts, students write a letter/blog entry to the editor/author/principal/manager/prime minister/etc regarding their concerns.


Oral Assessment Suggestions
a) A “Prototype Oral Interview” exists in “ESL Learners: A Guide for ESL Specialists”, pages 58 & 59 at the following website: http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/esl/policy/special.pdf
b) An additional “ESL Oral Assessment Strategy” is on page 62 of the same website. This assessment requires the student to look at a picture provided and “tell the story” of what is happening in the picture in as much detail as possible.
c) Using a sequence of pictures, have the student tell the story or describe the series of events and make predictions.
d) Using common toys, puppets or a comic strip, have the student create an oral story about what is happening, what will happen, what happened before, etc.
e) Using a mystery box, sack, or paper bag, have students make predictions about what might be hidden in it.
Here are language samples from the oral interviews of our 4 and 5 year old incoming students, taken during the oral assessment conversations at the School Board Office.
Level
One: (Describing toys/conversation)
  • Don't know.
  • He eat it. He eat all. Big fish.
  • Play. Toys. Lego.
  • I do ABC. I have toys to my house.
Level Two: What did you do this morning before you came here? First you woke up, then....
  • I put on my shirt and then I brush my hair and I wash my face. So many. And then I go to eat my breakfast and then I come back to home. If I bring mommy finish, I go to here.
  • I eat some food. Brush tooth. Then I have to go. My mom drived.
Level Two:
  • I almost six. I always go to school. I play playdough.
  • He putting in her mouth.
  • My head is are sleepy. I have a English lot. Everytime Mommy I talk Japanese to Mommy.
  • Now it almost to go to Kindergarten because we have a long week. My piano teacher haven't teach me yet.
What do you do at preschool?
  • We do learning. We eat laughing cow on my bread. Play the toys. Do the lesson.
  • I play with my friends. Play with toys and mommy and daddy and baby.
  • I go to big school. I slip and fall down.
What is your favourite story?
  • I only daycare is just the book. My book take the daycare. My teacher say yes.
  • I have book about princess.
  • Butterfly book. Her wings are ABCD.
  • I don't have it.
Level Three:
  • I have a favourite movie. Bevery Hills Chihuahau. Like all the dogs can talk. One dog likes another dog really much and then they both get married.
  • Yes I go to preschool. Painting, colouring, I making art. Something like that. Playing cars, playing trains or playing drums. My favorites trains. I have two favorites. The other one is cars. I have so many tow trucks. I can't remember how many police car. I need to buy more trains. In my school, we listen to stories.
  • My name starts with S. I went to preschool. I don't go there everyday. I do my sister and then she sleep. She's sleeping and so is my daddy. I have this dog but it's so big now. My friend he love dinosaurs sometimes! Does this frog close his mouth?
  • Sometimes my mom and dad say no to play with me.
  • I ate breakfast. My mom just drove me together with my dad.
  • I'm going to be late for daycare a little bit.
  • I love dinosaur. I love playing with this. Only babies like this. Did you know dinosaur died long time ago? Then they turned into bones. Then they put them up in a museum. Look at the dinosaur teeth! Ouch! The teeth fall out!
Level Four :
  • I showered. I was at home. I got cold. When the blankets help, when I have a cold, I always shiver. I still have the shivers.
  • I got up. I ate my breakfast and then I got dressed and brushed my teeth. We walked because my Daddy had to go to work. My dad's birthday he's before me.
  • The baby is sleeping on the floor. Now there's no more food. The momma finished her food.
  • These are my pjs I came in. I didn't change. Grandma. Yesterday I visited her. I had lots of fun.
Level Five:
  • In the morning, we do writing. I like to play with my sister. Sometimes we watch TV with our friends. In the afternoon, sometimes we do special activities. (This morning) I ate breakfast and I changed into my uniform.
Guidelines for Preparing Elementary ELL Student Reports

Guidelines for Elementary Reports (see above attachment for details)
There is a fair amount of flexibility in the reporting of ELL progress, reflecting the varied nature of the levels and the support. Elementary report cards options include:
  • co-written by classroom teacher and ELL teacher using Reportmaker
  • or the ELL teacher gives comments to the classroom teacher to be embedded in the classroom teacher’s regular report
  • or a separate ELL Report is attached to the regular report.
All ELL students :
  • must receive a regular report with written comments at all levels and all grades. For ELL, comments are used to describe English language development. Letter grades or performance scales are not used in ELL;
  • must receive an embedded comment or attached insert which includes the ELL teacher's name and a description of their progress in English language development;
  • must receive written comments that address briefly what they can do, areas in which the student requires further attention and ways of supporting learning, including progress in English Language development at all levels and grades;
  • must receive reports that state that s/he is receiving ELL support from an ELL specialist. Stating ELL level and frequency of service is not necessary. However at the end of the year, the recommended ELL level for September needs to be stated. e.g. I look forward to working with NAME during the next school year at Level X. Note, it is not recommended to include the number of minutes per week as the support schedule will likely fluctuate during the year and be slightly different between teachers and schools.
  • Note at year end, for primary students only, the Ministry requires the following statement on BCeSIS and on the PR cards: Received support in English as a Second Language.

For Primary students:
Primary Levels One and Two receive an asterisk, not a performance scale unless it is an area where the student can show his/her understanding in relation to the expected learning outcomes set out in the curriculum, such as in Math or PE.

• Primary Levels Three to Five receive a performance scale, and comments about their ELL progress.

* An overall comment regarding student’s school progress with reference to the expected development for children in a similar age range must be provided each term orally or in writing at the bottom of the report card. In the case where an ELL Level 1 or 2 student is experiencing difficulty and it is unclear whether language alone is impeding his/her language development, rather than write the comment, it may preferable to communicate the information during a parent/teacher conference.

For Intermediate students:
• Intermediate Levels One and Two receive an asterisk, not a letter grade unless it is in an area where the student can show his/her understanding in relation to the expected learning outcomes set out in the curriculum, e.g. Math.
• Intermediate Levels Three to Five receive letter grades and work habit marks, and comments about their ELL progress.

Sample Reports and Comments For ELL
Here below are some sample reports used in 2010/11 for ELL Elementary students, some as inserts and others as embedded comments.
The choice of embedded comment versus separate ELL report is dependent on how the service is provided and the level of the student. For example, a Level One student receiving Level One pull-out support will receive a separate report card whereas a student receiving Level Three in-class support most likely will receive an embedded comment in the regular classroom teacher's report card. Use your professional judgment and discuss options with staff to determine the best way to service and report on your students.

Sample Separate Insert Reports for ELL (Not embedded)
Term 1 Sample for a Level 1/2 pull-out program

Term 2 Sample Insert for a Level 1/2 pull-out program

Term 3 Sample Insert for a Level 1/2 pull-out program

Sample Checklist Style Insert Report Cards, Term 2 and 3



Sample Year End Comments on BCeSIS & PR Card
In third term, in addition to the report card, for Primary Students, a statement needs to be recorded on MyED and on the Permanent Student Record card, as well as at the bottom of the report card template or given orally to the parents a statement about the child's development in relationship to others of his age. Here below are the end of year comments from the MyED pull-down menu which are to appear on Primary student's PSR:
... has exceeded widely held expectations for students in this age range in all subject areas.
... has met widely held expectations for students in this age range in all subject areas.
... has met widely held expectations for students in this age range in all subject areas except.....
Received instruction on an adapted program in:.....
Received instruction on a modified program in:.....
Received support in English Language Learning
Received additional instructional support in:.....
An IEP is on file to support learning in:...............

Students in Grades 4-7 only get letter grades or NM (No Mark) for subjects with an IEP or ELL support. No comments are to be entered for their PSR (Permanent Student Record card).
See attached detailed instructions for entering the report card comments (2010-11 version):



For Recent Arrivals in Third Term: consider using an embedded comment such as:
  • NAME has been receiving assistance for the past few weeks with the ELL teacher, M..... While it is important to maintain one's First Language, NAME should be given every opportunity over the summer to practise English as much as possible. Summer School ELL classes through the Richmond School District's Continuing Education Department are available. You should contact your SWIS (Settlement Worker in Schools) to assist you in enrolling your child(ren) in this or similar ELL summer programs.
  • Here is a summary of ....'s present language development levels: ....
  • I look forward to working with NAME at Level ..... during the next school year.
For Third Term Continuing in ELL - use an attached or embedded comment:
  • NAME has received ELL support for the past ... year(s) on a regular basis with the ELL teacher, M.... During this past year, NAME has made ..... progress in .... S/he should continue to work on .....
  • Here is a summary of ....'s present language development levels.......
  • I look forward to working with NAME during the next school year at Level .....
Or another version:
  • “This term, (student name), has continued to receive support in the area of English language development by (ELL Teacher). (Student Name) has made (steady, good, very good) progress. During the month of April, all ELL students are administered year-end District Assessment tests. Results of your child’s ELL Assessment:
  • Oral-Level _,
    Reading-Level
    _,
    Writing-Level _.
    The recommended overall support for your child for September 2015 is Level
    _
Third Term Exiting ELL after 5 years of funded support but still needing support (not yet Level 5) - attached comment
  • NAME has received ELL support for the past five years. Here is a summary of .....'s present language development levels: .....
  • During this past year, NAME has received support from the ELL teacher, M. ...... NAME has made ....... progress in ........ He/She should continue to work on ..........
  • NAME will not receive additional ELL support next year as funding is not provided by the Ministry beyond 5 years.
Or another version:
  • “This term, (student name) has continued to receive support in the area of English language development by (ELL Teacher). (Student Name) has made (steady, good, very good progress). During the month of April, all ELL students are administered year-end District Assessment tests. Here are the results of your child’s ELL Assessment:
Oral-Level _,
Reading Level
Writing-Level _.
Overall support for September 2015: Level

NAME will not receive additional ELL support next year as funding is not provided by the Ministry beyond 5 years.

Third Term Level 5 and Exiting ELL - i.e. completed Level - use attached comment if you wish.
  • During this past year, NAME has received ELL support from the ELL teacher, M..... NAME has made ..... progress in ....... S/He should continue to .....
  • Here is a summary of ....'s present language development levels: ....
  • NAME is at Level 5 and will no longer receive ELL support next year.
  • “This term, (student name), has continued to receive support in the area of English language development by (ELL Teacher). (Student Name) has made (steady, good, very good progress. (Student Name) is at Level 5 and will no longer receive ELL support next year.”
Annual Instructional Plan (AIP) For Elementary
Part of meeting the requirements for an audit is to include an Annual Instructional Plan (AIP) in each student's file. This plan needs to be signed and dated before September 30 as well as signed and dated each term. Support needs to be started before September 30 for the child to be included in the 1701 count and funded for ELL.

The attached document below is a suggested AIP. An interactive version of it is available on Richnet in the ELL folder called ESL (Richmond).

Formative Assessment
Teachers use performance based assessments not only to inform practice but also to include students as learners in the assessment process. There are a number of ways to support the ELLs in communicating his/her understanding of the learning. Here are some examples for your consideration.

SELF EVALUATION TASKS (Adapted from MG Simpson, JE Lovely 2005)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/4662920/Assessment-for-Learning-Peer-and-Self-Assessment-Strategies-Teacher-Notes

A: Personal reflection
1 Reflection / Self assessment – generic prompt questions
·This helps the student to focus on specific aspects of learning and means that they don’t miss anything out.
·This provides the student with a scaffold to guide their reflections.
·After a key summative assessment point, students are given a self assessment prompt sheet to reflect on their performance and to identify areas of strength and weakness, They could also be asked to highlight topic areas with which they struggle.

2 Reflection time
·This forces students to think about their learning and their progress. Review and reflection are essential for authentic learning and need to be planned for.
·In the middle of a project, students reflect on their own work against the stated learning outcome and revise their plans. They also have the opportunity to ask for support.

3 Reflection – pre and post task
This allows for students to demonstrate prior learning and it enables them to create a baseline from which they can measure progress.
·At the start of a unit of work, students make a note of anything and everything they know about ...... This may include first and second language use. They review their notes at the end of the unit of work and check to see how accurate they were and what they’ve learned in the meantime.

4 Ratings
·This is a quick visual prompt and way of a student reflecting on where they are at the start and end of a learning episode
·At the start of a unit of work, students reflect on their level of ability
e.g. (Can’t do) 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10 (can do)
This system works well for measuring success and raising self esteem and also, builds in accountability for progression.

B: Quick non-verbal reflection
1 Teacher asks students for their level of confidence
·Students can identify productive areas on which to focus their efforts and develop mastery of particular concepts and skills.
·Students respond by standing / sitting / sitting on the floor depending on their level of confidence with a task.

2 Thumbs up / Hands up
·This is a very quick diagnostic for the teacher to assess levels of confidence – if the teacher wants to protect the students, they can make their indications with their eyes closed, so it is only the teacher who sees the judgement.
·At the end of the lesson, the teacher conducts a plenary review of the main objectives of the lesson with students indicating with thumbs up/down or hands wavering in the middle as to whether they believe they met the objectives. They then discuss one thing they could do next time to improve with a partner, telling the teacher as they leave for their next lesson.

3 Traffic light cards
·Another quick visual diagnostic for the teacher and also a means by which students can voice an opinion as to their level of understanding.
·At the start of a lesson, students are asked a key question and they respond to the question by raising red/yellow/green cards as to whether they could answer the question with confidence. Throughout the lesson, the students leave the card on their table, changing the card as the lesson progresses (turning the red card face up if they don’t understand something at all and turning the green card over when they feel confident enough to answer the question. The task is repeated at the end of the lesson.
·See traffic light model :

C: Creating own assessments and marking
1 Use examples of work from anonymous students and ask their peers to suggest ways of improving the work and how they would meet the learning outcomes.
· Students see what success looks like and explicitly identify the features that make for a good piece of work.
· Helps moderate shared understanding of standards.
· Sets benchmarks for target setting.
· Students are give some solutions to a problem and asked to evaluate the efficiency of the strategies chosen, to identify errors and make suggestions for improvement.
· Students are given some background and results from a particular scientific enquiry and a set of results. Before writing their conclusion of the inquiry, students are shown examples written by others and discuss which is the better conclusion and why.
· The teacher uses a piece of work that is not perfect but is about the level that the pupils might achieve. Pupils work in groups, using the criteria to agree on the level.

2 Students evaluate their own answers
·This enables students to reflect objectively on their work. It is most effective when there is a time-lag between the completion of the work and the reflection point. This is also more effective if the student uses assessment criteria as a checklist.
·Before handing in a piece of persuasive writing, students review their own work and suggest the grade they believe they should receive for the work and they identify the evidence to back up their jugement.

3 Students develop assessment criteria
·This helps students to get into the whole assessment process – it focuses them on the process of knowing what information/skill needs to be assessed and then devising the means to assess it.
·Students in .... are asked to create an assessment task for their classmates who will demonstrate that they can .... They have to identify the assessment criteria and in so doing, have to identify the essential ingredients for themselves.

4 Ask students to write their own questions on a topic to match the expected learning outcomes and, in addition, provide answers to others' questions.
·Helps students distinguish between learning objectives and learning outcomes (and how to ‘come up with the goods’)
·Helps students recognize a range of alternative appropriate responses.
·At the end of a topic of work, students generate their own end of topic ‘test’, with mark schemes using the expected outcomes for that topic and their own books and textbooks as a resource and their peers complete the tests.

D: Graphic Organizers
1 Traffic lights
· Very effective strategy for seeing improvement and for targeting specific areas of concerns. Rather than focusing on everything, the ‘red’ areas can be dealt with systematically. It is an excellent ‘dipstick’ as it is easy to see. It avoids the trials of writing self assessments and is more fun!
·The teacher asks students to ‘traffic light’ concepts for a particular piece of work. Green is ‘happy’; amber is ‘not quite sure’; and red is ‘very unsure’. Work can then be targeted at an appropriate level – OR - Greens can then support ambers and reds. Many red marks mean more in-depth teaching is required.
·Allows students to give an immediate response in a secure environment.

2 Webs / Mind maps/ Concept maps
·Lots of information can be summarized very succinctly.They can also be used for giving students ‘the ‘BIG’ picture at the start of a unit and then students can ‘traffic light’ the web / map at the end of the unit.
·e.g. Students are asked to summarize what they have learned about the different species of bear.

For examples of graphic organizers, visit: Graphic Organizers

3 Triangles
·Students place knowledge and feelings in different areas e.g. what I have seen, heard and done which has helped me learn – this helps interconnecting senses and emotions. The organizer is used to breakdown certain types of learning. There are 4 sections to be used creatively. It can support the VAK ideas; students can add questions they would like to ask; it can help the student to think ahead to what else they would like to learn or remember to do next time.

4 KWL (What do I Know? What do I Wonder? What Did I Learn?)
·These grids provide the teacher with information on the students’ perceptions and interests. They give the students some ownership of their learning and encourage them to set a learning agenda.
·Students place knowledge and feelings in different areas e.g. what I have seen, heard and done which has helped me learn – this helps interconnecting senses and emotions. The organizer is used to breakdown certain types of learning. There are 4 sections to be used creatively. It can support the VAK ideas; students can add questions they would like to ask; it can help the student to think ahead to what else they would like to learn or remember to do next time.

5 Ladders / Washing Line / Continuum /Self audit
These allow students to measure progress and they encourage students to break things down into manageable steps. They can help the student come to a decision by involving him/her in placing learning in a ranking order –
·which was most important?
·which have I really understood best?
·useful for comparing and contrasting
·shows interrelations between two elements

6 Venn Diagrams / Relational Diagrams
·Useful for comparing and contrasting, clarifying
·Shows interrelations between two elements

7 PMI
·Encourages pupils to identify what has worked and not worked for their learning (NB. It can also be drawn as a table. This is one of Edward DeBono’s DAT Thinking Tools)
+ PLUS - MINUS - INTERESTING
·Students are asked to evaluate a marketing design which a class colleague has created using specific criteria – in groups they spend 1 minute only brainstorming plus/minus/interesting points and then make a final judgement.

8 Hypercard Stack
·This allows students to see the interconnected-ness of topics, concepts, skills, etc. It is very similar to Venn diagrams and can also be simulated without a computer using OHTs or library index cards
·In ICT a computer version allows students to link information in non-linear, visual formats

9 Flowchart
·This helps students to structure their thoughts and see a logical progression – in terms of assessment they can be used to walk students through a process.
·In a Math lesson, a flowchart is used to help students assess which numbers are prime numbers.

10 Right Angle Chart
·These help students to separate emotions from facts in a very obvious and visual way. They are very similar to Edward DeBono’s ‘Thinking Hats’ approach which also forces people to think in different ways – in terms of the assessment process, they can help separate the disappointment of not quite achieving the learning outcomes with identifying objectively where the learning gaps are.

E:
1 Learning Diary
This enables students to plot progress and see what they have completed over a series of lessons …it also helps prevents the ‘what did we do last lesson?’ syndrome.
·At the end of a unit of work, students reflect on their journey and highlight key learning episodes: where did they learn the most, where did they have the most fun, etc.

2 Reflective Diary
·This forces students to regularly reflect on their learning. This needs careful scaffolding and modeling. In the early stages, students tend to write descriptively rather than reflectively – modelling the language of reflection and building up this vocabulary is essential for success.
·At the end of each activity, students are given 2-3 minutes to reflect on three key points:
a) Did the task help you to learn?
b) Did you enjoy the task?
c) What have you learned about yourself?

3 Reflection time ·Providing think time / reflection time / processing time is vital for deep learning
·The teacher uses key thinking skills activities which provoke reflection and the class as a whole spend a whole lesson reflecting on how they learned something. This is part of the Scheme of work and accesses higher-level thinking skills.

F: Portfolios
1 Personal Portfolios -> Digital portfolios
·Students have examples of their work at different points and stages of evolution. They can see the progress and explain the differences.
·Digital portfolios are easy to store and access
·Students compile a series of WORD files of their own annotated pieces of work in English at different levels.

G: Creating assessments for others, tests, marking and feedback
1 Students mark peer work and suggest ways to improve (either with and without giving them the answers!)
· Students see what success looks like and explicitly identify the features that make for a good piece of work.
·Helps moderate shared understanding of levels or standards.
·Sets benchmarks for target setting.
·If answers are not given students have to find the answers for themselves first …this promotes research and independent learning.
·Students are give some solutions to a problem and asked to evaluate the efficiency of the strategies chosen, to identify errors and make suggestions for improvement.
·Students are given some background and results from a particular scientific enquiry and a set of results. Before writing their conclusion of the enquiry, students are shown examples written by other students and discuss which is the better conclusion and why.
·The teacher uses a piece of work that is not perfect but is about the standard that the pupils might achieve. Students work in groups, using the criteria to agree on the level.

2 Ask students to analyse mark schemes and devise their own for a specified task
·Students are able to reflect on what the key aspects or ideas in a unit of work or task are, and refine their own interpretations of requirements and possible pitfalls.
·Helps students recognize a range of alternative appropriate responses
·The whole class evaluate short responses to the ‘explain’ part of a test question interpreting the data given in a graph or chart. Students make a judgement as to which responses would gain the mark in the test.
·The teacher sets homework then asks the class what the success criteria will be. Following completion, the work is peer-marked.
·The teacher constructs an exemplar copy of each topic test with model answers and shows this to students when returning their test papers, allowing time for pupils to compare their answers to the model ones.

3 Encourage students to develop assessment criteria for periodic assessment tasks
·Helps students focus on what they need to produce or demonstrate to have their achievement recognized.
·As an extension to a starting point activity in a new topic, having found out what students already know ask them to speculate about what they think they might need to learn about next.

4 Post-its
·Focuses on thinking about learning
·Encourages students to think ‘beyond’ to the next step.
·Groups, pairs, individuals evaluate learning on post-it notes:
What have I learnt?
What did you find easy?
What did you find difficult?
What do I want to know now?

H: Interviews
1 Students ask questions of each other
(Encourage students to listen to other students’ questions and presentation made in class and to ask questions on points that they do not understand)
·Students think about what they have not understood.
·Students publicly acknowledge that they can, and want to, learn from each other.
·Promotes the idea of collaborative working – ‘many brains better than just one’.
·Can help establish ‘working together’ protocols.
·Whole-class discussion, making conjectures about comparisons of data displayed in two pie charts. Students respond using
whiteboards followed by episodes during which successive students add to or refute explanations.
·Students research different alternative energy resources and make short presentations to the rest of the class about how each one works and its advantages and disadvantages. The teacher acts as chair and takes questions from the rest of the class, feeding them to an appropriate student on the presentation team.

2 Talk partners / Response partners
·Gains an overview of learning that has taken place. Has an opportunity to change the focus of teaching – if necessary
·Students share with a partner:
3 new things they have learnt, what they found easy, what they found difficult, something they would like to learn in the future.

3 Ask students to decide whether they think an answer is reasonable, whether they can add to the answer, or whether they would have given another answer.
·Students can evaluate the validity of statements and generalizations and discuss common mistakes and misconceptions
·Helps moderate shared understanding of standards.
·Students discuss the validity of general statements, and whether they are sometimes, always or never true. eg. multiplication makes numbers bigger, OR if a square and a rectangle have the same perimeter, the square has the greater area.
·Students are shown anonymous answers to a particular test and exam questions and asked to improve or expand on the answer.

I: Observation
1 Observation checklist
·These can help students to focus on specific aspects of performance. It also provides them with a focussed task to do when evaluating the work of a peer. It focuses students on learning objectives and outcomes and ensures that their comments are objective and constructive.
·In a language lesson, students evaluate each other’s oral presentations
Criteria Examples Student 1 .................................................... Student 2..................................
  • Speaks in a clear audible manner
  • Speaks without hesitation and uses an interesting tone of voice
  • Provides interesting information
  • Uses visuals to support what is being said
  • Uses past tense
  • Answers question(s) at end
2 Problem-solving checklist
·This focuses students more on the process of problem-solving and on collaborative group work. It highlights key skills and, as students are aware that they will be assessed against these points, they are more likely to exhibit these behaviours. This is a useful follow-up activity to do after having established ground rules or key skills for peer assessment …with students working in threes – one person observing
·After establishing that students need to actively listen, gear comments around the learning objectives and encourage their
partners when giving feedback, an observer ‘evaluates’ the feedback.
Criteria Student1................. Student 2 .......................
  • Makes eye contact
  • Picks up on comments and develops
  • Sticks to the objectives
  • Backs up comments with evidence
  • Suggests improvements
3 Modelling (using exemplars)
·This helps to scaffold the peer assessment process. By slowing it down and talking students through the process, they become better at it.
·Students watch a peer assessment feedback session and identify what makes it work
4 Video
·There is no place to hide! ·Students watch their own presentations and identify the most effective parts.

J: Performance tasks
1 Student-led plenary
·Teacher can assess exactly what this particular student / group of students has/have understood and/or learned.
·These need careful planning and should not always happen at the end of the lesson.
2 Forum Theatre
·This strategy allows for experimentation in a safe, detached and fun environment. Improvement suggestions are made not as criticisms but as alternatives.
·In a social responsibility lesson, students explore different responses to a bullying incident. At the end of the session, they decide on the most effective approach and all try it out as a role play with a partner after having seen it being modeled.
Other teacher-made samples for consideration:

Sample Level 2/3/4/5 Reflection on Work (adapted from ELL Teacher Karen Choo)
  • Discuss the results of this quiz/project/writing/poster presentation/etc. with your parent(s) or guardian(s)
  • Use this sheet to see what led to your results
  • Share your action plan with your parent(s) or guardian(s)

Name: ..................... Date :.................. Subject: ..................... Quiz Results .......

Before writing the ........ (reply Yes / No)
  • I asked for help with ideas and activities that I did not understand.
  • I did all of the homework before the .....
  • I did all the corrections I needed to do on the homework.
  • I did any homework that I had missed doing.
  • I started studying for the ,,,, at least a few days before the date of the .....
  • I asked for help when I came across ideas that I did not understand while studying.

Plan of action for the next quiz or assignment: ...................
Before writing the next quiz or completing the next assignment, I will..............

Student signature .......................... Parent signature ..................................

Please Work on the Following Areas:
...... Add more details to better explain your ideas
...... Add interesting words (happy = jubilant, content, radiant, glorious, etc)
...... Make your writing more precise, exact, and descriptive (eg. car/ mint green sport car / mint green Mustang)
...... Make your writing flow more smoothly with transitions (eg. first, therefore, as a resutl)
...... Use different types of sentences (e.g. The cat is hungry. / The cat is hungry but Wilma refuses to feed him. /
Although the cat is hungry, Wilma refuses to feed him because he has already eaten too much this morning. )
...... Improve your introduction and / or conclusion
...... Check your spelling with a dictionary
...... Check your punctuation and / or capitals
...... Check for errors in grammar
...... Other :