Support Delivery Models
Support for ELL learners can look quite different from school to school depending upon pragmatic needs that may change from year to year. What support will look like at a school depends on the following considerations:
  • staff and administration input
  • number of ELL students and support level needs
  • percentage of ELL students to the whole school population
  • resource model in place at the school
  • experience, training and availability of staff

Groupings
Groups are arranged primarily by classroom groupings which include students at different support levels or by levels from different classrooms (primary Level 1, intermediate Level 1).

To avoid conflicts with other activities, schools are encouraged to arrange ELL support before finalizing other timetables. This request could be referred to the school's SCC.

Program delivery may be one or a combination of the following:
Support for Levels 1 and 2 can be separate programs that focus on targeted language skills and strategies for a period of time. Typically at Levels 3 and 4, teachers focus on instruction of reading and writing strategies and support in classroom content and projects.

In-class support usually focuses on providing help with regular classroom assignments. This may involve front-end loading of vocabulary, building background knowledge, teaching and reviewing of comprehension and word attack strategies, providing additional instruction or reteaching of concepts/content, or editing and proofreading. This support may be provided to the whole class, small groups or to individual students within the classroom.

Co-teaching an entire class involves both the ELL and the classroom teachers planning and delivering the instruction. This is typically done in language arts or content areas such as social studies or science. Research shows this to be the best model to meet the widest range of needs as students receive the most consistent support with the least amount of disruption in class and both teachers are perceived to be of equal value. This model works best when the planning time is scheduled in the ELL and classroom teachers' weekly plan.

Service Delivery Models
Schools organize their support services in a variety of ways based on the needs of students and teachers and the qualifications of support staff. Some schools designate specific teachers to specific roles (e.g. ELL, LA and RT), each providing service to the entire school. Some combine the roles with each Resource teacher providing the necessary support to all students in specific classrooms. Other schools use a combination of these two organizational methods. A semi-blended model could mean that divisions are shared. Learning Assistance teachers still work with low-incidence students and case manage their files but ELL teachers pick up high incidence special needs students, as well as ELL students.
The table below shows some of the advantages and disadvantages of each model.

Model
Advantages
Disadvantages
Pullout
Each teacher specialist works in the chosen field of expertise. ELL teacher can enhance the in-class delivery with parallel instruction or direct instruction, working on classroom content or strategies.
Workload distribution between ELL and Resource teachers could be uneven. Planning time with multiple classroom teachers can be difficult to arrange. Classroom teachers may have to meet with two or more support teachers. As well students may be reluctant to leave the classroom and parents may not be supportive of their child leaving the classroom for support.
Blended
Specialist teachers get to know classes in depth and directly work with the content. Students remain in-class, making for smooth transitions and consistent use of strategies.
ELL teacher may not feel qualified delivering LA/ Resource. Planning time is needed to make this model work well.
In-class
ELL teacher can enhance the in-class delivery with shared or direct instruction, working with students, classroom content and strategies. This model allows for collaborative shared ownership of students, and permits both the ELL teacher and classroom teacher to observe how students work together in the class. This model provides the least amount of disruption as students remain in class.
ELL teachers are not whispering radiators, i.e. it is not advisable for the ELL teacher to sit side by side the ELL student and do the work together. Planning time is essential to this model as both teachers play an equal role.
Semi-Blended
Allows flexibility as staff may target specific level or needs over a specific period of time.
Some students would only be monitored while other needs are being addressed.


In conclusion, each school must select the best model or combination of models to best serve the diverse needs of the school. The decision on the choice of model should be a collaborative one made by staff and administration. As well, the availability and experience level of teachers as well as the number and needs of students should be taken into consideration. The support model should also be flexible enough to be able to accommodate new arrivals and the changing needs of the school.